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lighting design
Design Tips
Residential lighting design

A well-thought-out lighting system is an important step on the way to a stylish and harmonious interior. From this article, you will learn what lighting design is, what trends are now at their peak, and how to transform rooms with light.

Who is a lighting designer and why he is needed

Independently think through the lighting strategy without special skills is very difficult. At first glance the task seems feasible, but in practice it is rarely possible to competently implement ideas. Common mistakes:

  • Incorrect location of fixtures.
  • Failure to comply with lighting standards.
  • Inefficient distribution of outlets and switches.
  • Lack of a plan for linking lighting fixtures on the power groups.

And it is also important to understand the types of lighting and the characteristics of electrical appliances. In order not to delve into these issues, it is easier to trust a professional.

The main task of the lighting designer is to arrange the lighting correctly. A specialist must be familiar with colorists, interior styles, lighting equipment, fashion trends. In developing the project, he is also guided by the climatic nuances of the region. 

The first stage of the specialist’s work is the creation of the concept. The lighting designer evaluates the characteristics of natural light, plans the location of fixtures, thinks through the type and number of devices. 

The professional knows how to do the work in accordance with norms and standards. He will help organize designer lighting that will bring comfort to all occupants of the rooms.

How lighting in the interior affects the space of rooms

Good lighting will emphasize the details of the interior, visually increase the space and make the room cozy. A few more interesting facts:

  • Ceiling lights, arranged in a row, will visually add height to the room.
  • Reflective elements on the walls will visually expand the space.
  • Lights, longitudinally arranged on the wall, visually “elongate” the room.

If there is not enough light in the room, it will look gloomy. The situation can not fix even the original design of the home – all items of furniture will appear in an unfavorable light. A poorly lit room will visually seem smaller than it really is. 

Scenarios and rules of modern lighting

The main rule of lighting design – the choice of fixtures for specific tasks. It is not necessary to place devices in the room, which are unlikely to be involved. To avoid mistakes, it is necessary to think through the scenario. 

Several scenarios can be combined in one space. The most common option is a multilevel lighting system. Such a solution is especially relevant for spacious rooms. The scheme includes:

  • The main ceiling lighting.
  • Additional lights in certain areas of the room.
  • Accent lighting of interior objects.
  • Creative lighting.

You can as much as you want to experiment with designer lighting, but in the first place should go the organization of the main. One chandelier or lamp is not enough, so it is important to think about how many light sources will be in the room and how to place them. To do this, experts make a scheme of lighting.

lighting design

Lighting scheme of the apartment

The first step in creating a lighting system is to prepare a lighting design project for each room. It is time to decide on the types and number of fixtures and the power of the lamps. In the plan, it is necessary to specify the points of lighting, in accordance with which the light sources should be located.

It is very important to choose switches and decide on their location. Usually, each group of lights is connected to a particular mechanism. Therefore, it is necessary to place all the devices so that it was convenient to use them. 

A great option is the pass-through switches. With their help, you can control lighting fixtures from different points in the apartment. To implement such a solution, it is necessary to think through the wiring scheme in advance.

A few more useful recommendations:

  • Sockets and switches should be located in easily accessible places. As a standard, at least one socket per 6 square meters of space should be provided. You can place more devices, if the lighting system is present floor lamps, sconces and fixtures that require individual connection to the network.
  • Outlets are best placed at a height of 0.5-0.8 m from the floor. Switches – at a height of 0.6-1.5 m.
  • To determine the optimal number of lighting fixtures per room, you must multiply the area of the room by the recommended rate of illumination.

Tip! To be able to regulate the light from the lights, you can install special switches-dimmers.

Lighting fixtures in the interior

Interior lighting is represented by different types of fixtures. Variants of devices:

  • Chandeliers.
  • Pendant lamps.
  • Spotlights.
  • Sconces.
  • Table lamps.
  • Floor lamps.

Let’s talk about each group of lamps. You will learn about the features of the products and be able to evaluate examples of interesting models. 


A chandelier is often used as the central element of the lighting system. It becomes a bright accent and a source of powerful light flux. However, it should not be the only fixture in the room. 

The chandelier design should be chosen depending on the height of the ceiling and the size of the room. If the room is small, a massive model will visually “steal” space. 

The design of the chandelier should follow the trends of the chosen interior style. Models with crystal horns and pendants will look great in the classic and luxurious art deco. Modern trends allow you to experiment with the shape, color and size of devices.

Tip: If there will be several chandeliers in the room, it is better to choose the same or similar in design models.

Pendant lamps

Pendant lamps are often present in the lighting scheme of the apartment. They give directional streams of light, so they are used to highlighting certain areas of the room. Most often they are placed above the kitchen and game tables, the bar. 

Suspended models are ideal for lighting design rooms with high ceilings. Devices are rarely placed singly – more often in groups of 3-4 instances. 

Wall sconces

Bra – wall lights, which serve for local lighting. There are several varieties of products: open, near-surface, models on a bracket.

Surface-mounted copies are tightly fitted to the wall. Usually they are miniature lamps enclosed in a transparent case. Such sconces emit soft reflected light, so they serve more as decorative illumination. Appropriate in the interior of the bedroom, children’s room, living room.

Open lamps – lamps without a plafond. Outwardly, they are very similar to candles. Most often they decorate offices, living rooms and hallways. Bra is bright enough to shine, so it is suitable as a source of local lighting.

Bracket chandeliers are lights mounted on an adjustable arm. If desired, they can be brought almost close to the wall or, conversely, put further away. Such devices – a great option for the study, library, hallway.

Table lamps

Table lamps – a popular attribute of lighting design projects. From the name of the lamps it is clear that these devices are designed for placement on horizontal surfaces: tabletops, shelves, pedestals. The products do not require special installation and look great in any room.

Floor lamps

Floor lamps are floor lamps on a high base. Devices are equipped with shaped lampshades or laconic plafond. A huge variety of designs allows you to pick up a model in any style of interior.

Spot lighting in the interior

Spotlights (spotlights) deserve special attention. They produce directed streams of light that spread at a certain angle. As a result, it is possible to illuminate the entire space of the room. 

Types of spotlights:

  • Recessed.
  • Overhead.
  • Track. 

Recessed lights are devices, the body of which is hidden in the ceiling or other surface where they are installed. Products are distinguished by their compact size and versatility. They are practically invisible in the interior and perfectly complement the more original sources of light.

Surface-mounted lights are mounted to the plane of the wall, furniture or ceiling so that the body is visible. Most often these models have a laconic design, so they are not conspicuous. They perfectly combine with other lighting fixtures and fit into any interior.

Track lights – a relatively new trend in lighting design. This is the name of the devices that are fixed on the bus duct. The main advantage of models – the presence of a rotating mechanism that allows you to change the direction of the light flux.

Important! If spotlights appear as the main sources of lighting, it is necessary to arrange them evenly on the ceiling. The optimal distance between devices – no more than 1.5 m. 

Trends in lighting design

Interior fashion tends to change quickly. This directly applies to lighting design. We tell you what trends professionals are using in the design of the rooms.

Eco Trends 

Popularity is gaining, light devices made of natural and environmentally friendly materials. Effectively look lamps in lampshades made of wood, thick paper, stone. Deserve attention lighting fixtures in wicker lamps. Such models are appropriate in almost all modern interior styles.

Laconic and minimalist 

Firstly, this category of trends includes compact lamps in transparent plafond. Devices look original and create a special entourage in the room. They are suitable as additional sources of general lighting and accent lighting of certain areas of the room.

At the peak of fashion, lamps in a concise round lamp shade. They are considered to be universal, because they perfectly combine with other light fixtures.

Unusual shapes

Fixtures with non-standard configuration come into fashion. Triangular, square and trapezoidal plafond will be a great accent in modern designs. Very popular are lamps with lampshades in the form of a balloon. They are ideal for installation in the nursery.

Room design with backlighting

Contour highlighting of interior elements is still in fashion. LED strips can be mounted on walls, on furniture, in niches. Very effectively looks light at the floor and the stairs. The point is that the devices were invisible to the eye and created the impression that the design is lit from within. 

Creative lighting is not a mandatory attribute of the project. However, you can “enliven” the interior by adding a few bright accents. Beautiful lighting is easy to create with neon and LED elements, garlands, colored lamps. Soft streams of light will emphasize the configuration of individual items of furniture, add warmth and coziness.

In the organization of lighting, there are no insignificant factors. This is a very responsible and creative process. But the efforts will be rewarded – the rooms will become comfortable and welcoming.

rain garden
Design Tips
Residential rain garden design

Have you heard of a rain garden? If not, it’s time to find out what it is.

A rain garden is a new type of garden that is a great addition to the landscape design. A rain garden is a type of tropical garden arranged in such a way that the structure collects runoff water and allows it to linger rather than soak into the ground. The secret is that the rain garden is filled with moisture-resistant plants.  It’s easy to make, looks great and, importantly, has a positive effect on the environment. What is the peculiarity of the rain garden design? Its main purpose is to collect stormwater from the roof, driveway or other impervious surfaces. Instead of going into a storm drain, rainwater collects in shallow recesses in your yard. This area is specially planted with plants and flowers chosen for their ability to gradually absorb and filter rainwater.

Rain gardens can have a significant impact on your area’s water quality. Studies have shown that up to 70% of pollution in streams, rivers and lakes is caused by stormwater. By taking responsibility for the rainwater that falls on your own roof and driveway, you will help protect our rivers, streams and lakes from stormwater pollution. 

Site placement

Your rain garden should be located at least a few feet away from your home. You should choose a natural area for its placement, which would be the lowest spot in your yard that often collects water after a heavy rain. Ideally, this area should be exposed to sunlight throughout the day. If that is not an option, you can limit it to half of the day, but it should never be a completely shady area. The combination of high humidity and constant shade can turn this area of your garden into a real swamp. 

The site should have a natural slope away from the water gathering area (your roof or driveway). 

Once you have located the new garden, remove the sod and dig a shallow depression of about 10-15 cm. The side slope should gradually go from the outer edge to the deepest area. Use the soil you remove to create a slightly raised area on the underside of the garden. This will help contain stormwater and allow it to slowly seep through the rain garden.

If your rain garden is no more than 15 cm deep, rainwater will be absorbed in about 7 days. Since mosquitoes lay and incubate eggs for 7 to 10 days, this will help you avoid problems with pesky insects. If you want to create an area with standing water for fish and amphibians, you can make one part of your rain garden deeper, up to 50 cm at the deepest point. Depending on the type of soil on your property (sand, clay, loam), you can line the bottom of this area to help keep the pool of water longer.

Most people calculate the size of a garden based on their available space. It depends on the size of the roof surface, the type of soil, and the distance from the rain garden to the house.

The drain from the roof or pump outlet from the basement should point toward the location of the rain garden. This can be accomplished either by a natural slope or by piping along the site.

rain garden

Filling with plants

Any moisture-loving plants will be suitable for a rain garden. They can withstand difficult growing conditions and do not require special care. When choosing plants, consider the height, flowering time and color. Bushes of three or seven plants of the same variety will look better than a patchwork quilt of singles. Be sure to mix ornamental grasses and sedge with perennial wildflowers to provide the garden with a strong root mass that will resist erosion and prevent weed growth.

All moisture-loving plants are suitable for planting in a rain garden, including flowers and shrubs as well as trees.

Flowers and shrubs:

  • valerian
  • geranium
  • periwinkle
  • rush
  • callas
  • globe-flowers
  • merlin
  • turpentine
  • boxwood

Moisture-loving trees include:

  • quince
  • mountain ash
  • hawthorn
  • weeping willow.

Even berries such as blueberries and blueberries can be grown in humid conditions.

Water the newly planted plants every day for the first two weeks. Once they have taken root, your garden can do without watering. Fertilizer will also not be needed. All your care for your rain garden will come down to minimal weeding after the first summer of growth.

Most rain gardeners wait until early spring to remove plants left over from the previous year. If you leave seed heads and fallen foliage over the winter, it provides the garden with a kind of protective roof as well as food for insects. As spring arrives, the best way to get rid of last year’s leftovers is to burn them. Not only will it get rid of the excess trash, but it will also stimulate the growth of new plants.

pool design
Design Tips
Residential pool design

Pool design in the country house includes a fairly large number of important components. On the one hand, you need to take care of its convenience and safety of operation, on the other – to choose the design solution, technology, materials and components, taking into account the economic feasibility and aesthetic side of things. The article touches on the most basic points that will help to form an idea of creating a pool in the house.


Swimming pool, in the language of engineers – a hydraulic structure. Since such artificial reservoirs are widely in demand, a large variety of standard projects for the house, sauna and plot have been created. In the priority of original solutions? Then for the development of the model will have to turn to designers. In either case, you must first decide what kind of pool you need.

Unheated outdoor pool for use in the warm season

For the construction of an outdoor artificial reservoir on the site will require significantly less cost than for the one that is located directly in the house. However, the swimming season is limited to a few months of the year.

Around the perimeter around the pool is recommended to plant dust- and windproof strips of tree and shrub plantings. If the site is located near a local highway, the width of the “green strip” should be at least 5 m on the traffic side. If it is a highway with heavy traffic – 20 m.

What crops are used for green fences:

  • prickly spruce;
  • fir;
  • cedar;
  • spirea;
  • honeysuckle;
  • honeysuckle;
  • cotoneaster;
  • snowberry;
  • pigweed.

At the end of the warm season the owners will have to take care of the conservation of the pond: drain the water, clean the bowl with chemicals and brushes, remove filters and other equipment, close the drains and fill them with water with preservative additives.

Outdoor heated pool for year-round use

Operation of reservoirs in the wintertime can be performed at the expense of heating equipment. Such equipment can be used for the pool, which is located in a house or a separate structure.

To reduce heat loss, it is recommended to install pavilions – sliding structures, which can be purchased in specialized stores. Since heat loss of outdoor structures is much higher, and the largest percentage of heat is lost due to evaporation of the liquid, during the heating automatic blinds or bubble film are used.

pool design

Indoor pool in the building for swimming in all seasons

This option is considered one of the most expensive and has many technical nuances, which can not be neglected, so as not to flood and not to destroy the structure of the building. The load created by the house and the pool filled with water, not every soil can withstand.

In the hall, where the pool is located, the humidity is greatly increased, so it is isolated from the rooms to prevent the formation of mold and eliminate other problems.

Pool lighting consumes a lot of energy. To reduce costs, panoramic glazing is installed in the room. However, this solution leads to an increase in heat loss, which is already large. For heating, lighting and air conditioning, a home reservoir consumes a large amount of energy.

Swimming pool should be incorporated into the design of the house, because remake the finished or already under construction building is difficult: it will significantly change the load on the foundation, water consumption, energy consumption. In this case, it is better to erect a separate structure.

Build an artificial reservoir can also be in a wooden house, for which the building must be equipped with a special heating system and treat wood with chrome and copper preservative impregnation. Pool design in a wooden house is customary not to clutter the interior with additional decorative elements.

Indoor pool in a separate building or annexed

Not, in all cases, it is acceptable that the foundation of the pool is adjacent to the foundation of the building. If the area of the site allows, you can make an extension for the pool at a small distance and equipped with a warm passageway.

Complex pool

A rare option – the bowl is indoors and outdoors.

Transformer pool with a rising-bottom

A bowl with a rising-lowering bottom can be installed both in the house and on the plot. This option will save space significantly, which is relevant, especially for allotments with a small area. Control the system is not difficult: press the button – the floor gradually moves downwards, and the tank is filled with water. You can choose a version with a retractable cover, on which you can also walk.

Built-in spa pools

These are prefabricated products for which equipment can be selected not only from the direct manufacturer, but also from other companies. Built-in models are quickly installed, so you can swim in them soon after purchase.

The devices are suitable for any interior, so you can decorate the poolroom in the country house in any style: classic, art deco, oriental, etc.

Portable Spa Pools

Depending on the model, the bowl can accommodate from 2 to 12 people. The devices are equipped with massage jets for turbo, jet and bubble massage. When installing the spa pool, you need to take care of the safety shutoff system. As the base, experts give preference to a concrete platform with a thickness of 10 cm or more.

Parameters for determining the cost of a stationary pool for the house and the selection of equipment

Development of the design of the pool in a private home, as a rule, is carried out at the design stage of the building after the geological studies of the soil and groundwater. If the calculations are wrong, unequal shrinkage of the building is possible, the consequence of which is the deformation of the whole structure that requires expensive reconstruction.

Bowl volume is the main criterion

Maximum characteristics are calculated based on the characteristics of the soil and the maximum allowable load on it. Therefore, not in all cases, it is possible to create a large pool.

Location of the pool

The most frequent variants of placement of home reservoirs – basement and first floor. The optimal height of the room – from 2 m to 80 cm if the bowl is sunk into the floor. The requirement should be observed since the installation of the ceiling, ventilation, air conditioning and lighting over it, the height of the walls significantly reduced.

If the bowl is located on the floor, the recommended height of the room – 3.5 m with a bowl height of 1.7-1.8 m.

Skimmer Pool Type

Water intake for filtration is realized through skimmers. Water is located below the floor level at 15 cm or lower. It is notable for simplicity in operation.

Overflow type

Water level with the edge of the bowl and the floor of the room. Excess water goes through the grids into the overflow trays and then enters the filtration system. Construction of overflow type pool is 1.5-2 times more expensive than skimmer type pool construction.

Pool bowls

Concrete, vinyl, fiberglass, polypropylene and steel sheets are used as material for making artificial reservoirs.

Concrete basin

It is durable and suitable for all hydrotechnical conditions. Swimming pools can be made in any configuration and choose any finish you like. A variety of equipment is produced for them, allowing you to create different effects.

Vinyl bowl

Shorter period of operation compared to other options. The material is resistant to chemical reagents. Suitable for creating containers of simple shape.

Fiberglass pool

Durable and unpretentious in care. Fiberglass refers to materials with low thermal conductivity. It is meant for installation at the initial stage of construction.

Polypropylene bowl

It is distinguished by its durability and low heat emission. Polypropylene pools can be made of almost any shape and size. No installation of heat and water insulation is required.

Steel sheet container

Bottom and walls made of welded stainless steel sheets. Part of the details are manufactured in the factory. The plates are assembled into a single vessel at the location where the pool is to be operated.


  • lightness;
  • long service life;
  • quick installation;
  • a variety of shapes and designs.

Finishing pool basin

For finishing capacity you can use PVC-film, ceramic tiles, smalt. The film is sold in rolls, it is cut, based on the shape and size of the bowl, and welded with hot air. Types: sealed liner, film with two layers of PVC and a polyester layer, butyl rubber membrane without reinforcement.

Ceramic tiles and mosaics are available in a large variety of colors and are used to create complex ornaments. Mosaic differs from tile in that it can be mounted on round and other curved surfaces.

Facing of pool sides

Floor tiles and mosaics with anti-slip surface, edging stone (granite, coping, straight, radius for curves) are designed for finishing pool sides.

Decorating the walls of the room

As a decorative coating of walls and ceilings in the interior of swimming pools in private homes, premises with home pools use a variety of materials:

  • artificial and natural stone;
  • moisture-resistant photo wallpaper;
  • ceramic and photoceramic tiles
  • mosaics;
  • plaster;
  • decorative panels;
  • flexible stone;
  • siding;
  • stucco and other options.


A big role in the interior of swimming pools in private homes is played by lighting, which is used to create interesting effects and a cozy atmosphere. In a room designed for a home pool, you can install moisture-proof chandeliers with LEDs and halogen lamps.

Contour lighting is mounted on top of the edges of swimming pools. Special lights are used for underwater illumination, including multicolored water illumination. The devices are made of stainless metal, durable plastic and tempered glass.

Fiber optic lighting is gaining in popularity, with the help of which:

  • illuminate areas of the room;
  • Create an effect of the starry sky and northern lights.

Overview of the transformer pool, which closes the lawn and performs both functions with dignity:

Topic Summary

In addition to the aspects mentioned in the article, when equipping the pool in a private home, you need to take care of disinfecting, filtering systems, filtration and heating devices, stairs and other appliances and interior elements to create a comfortable and safe environment.

Involvement of specialists and professional crews in the design and construction of the artificial reservoir will help to reduce the time of construction and arrangement of the pool, as well as to get the desired result.

roof design
Design Tips
Residential roof design

If the facade is the face of the house, then the beautiful roofs of private homes and forms of their design can be seen even on the approaches to the yard. Although modern roofing materials will allow realizing any design fantasies, before deciding on the choice of a particular type of roofing design, it is recommended to familiarize yourself with the nuances of design and operation of each of them. Consider in more detail the main types of beautiful roofing structures, their differences, advantages and existing disadvantages.

Gable roof

This type of roof is an example of the fact that the classic roof design is still relevant today.

This type of construction is considered the simplest, but thanks to new materials and ideas, the gable roof looks modern and spectacular.

The principle of installation of the roof has not changed since its first use.

If a homeowner needs inexpensive, but reliable and beautiful roof for a single-story house, the choice of a gable roof is considered the best solution.

The design represents two planes that can be both equal and different areas.

Based on the area, selected type of material for the roof. Due to its simplicity, this type of roofing is lightweight at high quality and resistance to weather elements. In this roof, every detail of the design has its purpose.

If you want to make a beautiful roof, you can combine a few gable roofs and get a great result

Varieties of single-pitch roofs

The roof of this type is mainly used for small buildings, but the use of large residential buildings is not excluded. Due to the simplicity in construction and device, this type of roof can be erected independently.

One of the advantages is that at its simplicity, such a roof looks modern and attractive. In fact, the roof of this type is a plane, lying at an angle to the walls of the building.

The angle varies depending on the climatic conditions of the area, as well as the landscape. With heavy snowfall, the roof provides an even load of snow over the entire area of coverage, which allows for the greatest safety.

When comparing with a gable roof, you can highlight one disadvantage – this roof will not get a comfortable attic room, but the house will be a modern beautiful roof.

A forgotten classic – a conical roof

The use of this type of roof – a direct revival of the roofing elements that have been undeservedly forgotten. The conical shape of the roof is considered an element of Russian architecture.

Unlike other types of roofs, the conical roof is a complex structure. The base of the roof is a circle, and the top is the connection point of the rafters. In addition, the conical and dome roofs are virtually the same type of roof, except for minor details.

The conical design of a private home roof has a huge and long history behind it. Most often the design was used to roof small parts of the building – towers or porches.

In modern times, such a detail of the architecture is rather rarely used for private houses. The reason for this is the high cost and complexity of installation. The reason for this is the high cost and complexity of installation.

To the same true masters, who firmly know their job in the erection of a roof, there are very few. But the presence of such a dome in a private home immediately gives the building elegance and grandeur.

The original mansard roof

The use of a mansard design will significantly increase the area of the living space. In addition, the structure will get an original design. When complying with the construction technology, the mansard roof can be performed independently, although the design of such a roof is quite complex.

The main feature of the design is that the upper part of the cover is more flat, and the side decks have a steep bevel. Due to this we achieve the creation of a full-fledged residential floor.

This significantly reduces the cost of construction, as well as reducing the load on the foundation. Such a roof gives a private house an aesthetic, original look.

In addition, such a roof must be insulated, which will improve the thermal insulation of the house. Build an attic is possible in any size and type of house – from a small country house to a huge cottage.

The variety of shapes of design allows for any type of roof – from triangular to asymmetrical broken. This roof allows you to create a very beautiful roof of single-story houses.

Mansard roof can be installed either around the entire perimeter of the building box, or a certain part of it.

Also, a mansard roof allows you to build a balcony in its design and install windows. In addition, the mansard roof can be multi-level, but it increases the complexity of construction.

Multi-pitched roof

This type of roof combines the use of multiple gable roofs in a single structure. This type of roofing is usually erected in the case when a residential building contains several extensions, on which depends on the roof design.

The roof of this type is very complicated by design, but with the proper planning and construction will give a presentable appearance to the house.

Multiclip roof is also erected in the arrangement of balconies and attics. Such roofs are built in expensive mansions. In addition, to pay the cost of such a roof can not every man.

Because of the complexity of the design, such a roof has a fairly large weight, so when designing the building envelope must consider the increased strength of the walls. By the disadvantages of such design can also include the joints of the surfaces of the various elements, so in these places may accumulate trash and snow. This can bring inconvenience in the form of constant need to clean these places. But the high ridge of the roof will create a full living floor with good insulation properties.


Half-timbered roof of a detached house

A hip roof is considered a European style. This is a great roofing option for a country house, which will give the building a stylish and modern look.

The use of practical materials will allow you to add various elements that will add elegance and practicality. In essence, a hip roof is a hipped roof.

Two end pitches are made in a triangular shape, the other two are made in the form of a trapezoid. That’s why the roof and got that name. The hipped roof boasts a variety of designs that create unique and beautiful roofs of houses. For example, a four-slope roof contains four equal in area slopes, and erected a roof with a square box.

If the living room has a porch, the hipped roof with a canopy will be an excellent solution for such a building. For maximum optimization of space under the roof, you can perform asymmetrical hip roof. The design allows the hip roof to build a cover that will be very resistant to snow loads and strong winds.

Engaged in the design and construction of such a roof should only train professionals, since the design requires precise and complex volume calculations.

Combined roof

This type of roof is probably the most complex by design. As a rule, such a roof combines elements of structures of different types.

Thanks to such a non-standard approach, residential house gets an unusual, unique look. A dwelling with a combined roof may have both covered balconies, a sufficient number of windows, porches, both open and closed.

And of course, the erection of such a roof – a very complex task. The cost of roofing is very significant, and the constant need for maintenance can cause inconvenience.

But the result of the installation of the roof will be comfortable added living space, as well as amazingly beautiful, reliable and unique roof in a private home. In addition, for the neighbors, a combination roof will provide a beautiful view from the roof.


As a result, we can say with certainty that the erection of a beautiful roof in a private home is quite possible, regardless of the chosen type of roof. Definitely to this element of the design should treat most responsibly.

Proper and professional approach to the planning and construction of the roof for the house as a result will present a beautiful modern roof, even if the selected type of roof will be the simplest. The construction of the roof will not tolerate lax attitude at any stage of creation, because even a minor miscalculation can nullify all the efforts and money spent.

solar system
Design Tips
How to design a residential solar system

The cost of solar panels is decreasing daily. The purchase or self-assembly and installation of stand-alone solar systems has become affordable to ordinary consumers. We decided to create this guide so that consumers can understand the necessary components, and be able to assemble a solar power plant for the home with their own hands.

Where do we start?

To independently design an autonomous system, you need a knowledge of the basics of electrical engineering and a certain knowledge of mathematics. To assemble, the simplest solar power plant requires 4 components:

  1. Solar panel (PV panel);
  2. Charge controller;
  3. Inverter;
  4. Battery.

In addition to the above components, you will need copper cable, connectors, protection devices and some small things. Below, we explain step by step how you can choose components just for your needs.

Calculating the load

Before you choose components, you need to calculate the load of the devices that will be connected to your solar power plant and how long they will run. To do this, you need to do the following:

  1. Determine what appliances (lights, fan, TV, pump, etc.) you will connect and how long (hours) they will run;
  2. Read the specifications of your appliances to determine their wattage;
  3. Calculate the amount of electricity you will use in watt-hours (Watt*h), which is equal to the product of the power rating of your appliances (W) divided by the operating time (h).

When you’ve finished calculating the load, it’s time to start selecting components to meet your load requirement.

Selecting the batteries

All solar panels are direct current sources. They only generate electricity during the day. If there is a desire to connect a DC load during the day, there is no problem with that, you can connect directly from the panels. But doing this is not a good solution because:

  • Most appliances need a constant rated voltage to work effectively. The voltage and current transmitted by solar panels are not constant. They change depending on the intensity of sunlight; overcast weather is “not good.”
  • If you want to turn something on at night, it simply will not turn on.

This problem is solved by using rechargeable batteries to store energy during the day and use it at night. There are many kinds of batteries. Open-type batteries with liquid electrolyte, which include car batteries, are designed to deliver high current for a short period of time. They are not designed for deep discharge, they have other tasks. Batteries for solar panels are deep cycle batteries, they can easily tolerate partial discharges and are designed for deep slow discharges. Gel and lithium batteries are well suited for solar power plants.

Selecting the panels

We will consider only monocrystalline or poly crystalline panels, and will not consider amorphous and other thin-film panels, due to their rapid degradation – loss of power.

The main differences between mono and poly:

Monocrystalline panels are more expensive and more efficient than poly crystalline panels. But in general, the efficiency is not much different, it depends not only on the type of cell, but also on the quality of the cells themselves and the integrity of the manufacturer.

Choosing a solar charge controller

A controller is a device that fits between the solar panel and the battery. It regulates the voltage and current coming from the solar panels to keep the batteries properly charged.

12-volt batteries are most often used, but solar panels can produce much higher voltages than are needed to charge the batteries. The charge controller actually converts the excess voltage into current, thereby reducing the time it takes to fully charge the batteries. This allows the solar panels to be quite efficient at any point in the day.

Choosing an inverter

Solar panels take the sun’s rays and convert them into electricity, they are direct current (DC) sources, just like a battery pack, and we need 220V AC to plug in our outlets. The direct current (DC) is converted to alternating current (AC) through a device called an inverter.

Types of AC waves at the output of an inverter:

  1. Rectangular wave – meander;
  2. Modified sine wave;
  3. Pure sine wave.

The rectangular wave inverter is the cheapest, but it is not suitable for all appliances. A modified sine wave inverter is also not designed to provide electricity to appliances with electromagnetic or capacitive components, such as: microwave ovens; refrigerators; and various types of electric motors. Modified sine wave inverters are less efficient than pure sine wave inverters.

Mounting the solar modules

Once everything is calculated and all the components have been purchased, it’s time to install the solar power plant with your own hands. First, choose a suitable place on the roof, where there are no obstacles to sunlight – no shade from trees and other buildings.

Angle of inclination of solar panels

To get the most out of a solar power plant for your home or cottage, you need to install them in a direction that will capture the most sunlight. The longer the panel is perpendicular to the sun, the more electricity it will generate. 

With the angle of inclination figured out, the orientation of the same panels should be to the south, if not, then south-east or south-west, but it should be understood that in this case, the output will be less. There are systems with variable position of the panels (solar tracker), but it will not be considered in this article because of the high cost of implementation and the presence of friction parts.

A rack or fixture for the roof of solar panels can be bought or make your own hands, even from wood, even from metal. The main thing is that it must be reliable, because the panel has a great sailing, plus you need to consider the distance between the panel and the roof – a tight fit is unacceptable. We use and recommend you to use special fasteners just for solar panels.